All of my patients have chronic pain, and to all of them, I tell them to take vitamin d. it’s not because vitamin D is a treatment for chronic pain. it’s for something else. so I stay here and we’ll talk about vitamin d and chronic pain. a couple of years ago I used to measure the blood levels of vitamin d in all of my patients. well, almost 99 percent of my patients had vitamin d insufficiency which means the levels were between 50 and 75 nanomoles per liter, or deficiency where the levels were less than 50 nanomoles per liter. in Canada, we use international units and the normal range is between 75 and 250 nanomoles per liter. in the united states, they use gravimetric units and the equivalent is between 30 and 100 nanograms per milliliter. does it mean that low vitamin d is causing chronic pain? no, not really. the most probable explanation is it is that it’s just a coincidence. in Canada, we have very low exposure to natural sunlight, and when it’s summer we apply sunscreen, or we prefer to stay in the shade. also, the sun rays that come to Canada are not the same as those that go to the equator. a person with light skin color needs only 13 minutes of sun exposure around noon, three times a week to make enough vitamin d during the summer months. people of darker skin color, have a natural sunscreen called melanin that prevents them from getting sunburned, but also from making vitamin D because melanin blocks the ultraviolet b rays from penetrating the skin. vitamin d is a pro-hormone, it’s made in our body when cholesterol is exposed to ultraviolet b sunlight in the skin. then it is transformed to 25 hydroxyvitamin d in the liver, and then it’s transformed to 1,25 di-hydroxy vitamin d or calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D. calcitriol is important for a variety of functions in our body for example the absorption of calcium from our guts, then depositing this calcium in our bones, which is important for developing strong bones and preventing osteoporosis; for muscle strength which is important for balance, to reduce falls, and to reduce muscle pain. also for the immune system which is important to fight cancer and infections, and also vitamin d is important for depression, it’s implicated people who have low levels of vitamin d their mood is more depressed. so you may be asking if people with chronic pain have low vitamin d levels then giving them vitamin D improves the pain? that would be wonderful but it’s not easy like that. vitamin d is not an analgesic which means it’s not supposed to reduce pain, there are many conflicting studies in this area. some show that if you give vitamin d to people who are deficient or severely deficient in vitamin d, there will be a reduction in pain intensity but there are other studies that did not show any reduction in pain. however, the consequences of prolonged periods of vitamin d insufficiency or deficiency may cause problems that could lead to chronic pain, for example, osteoporosis, fracture, poor balance, muscle weakness, insomnia, recurrent infections, cancer, and depression. so for this reason I recommend all of my patients to take vitamin D. so let’s talk about where we can get vitamin D? first, the natural source is the sun. only 10 to 15 minutes a day during the summer would be enough. but who has the time in discipline to do that? it’s interesting that when we make vitamin D in this way we’ll never produce more than what we can handle. it will always be the right amount. second, vitamin D is found naturally in some food like fish: salmon, sardines, herring, mackerel, trout, and tuna. also in cod liver and egg yolk. third, many foods are fortified with vitamin D. in Canada vitamin d fortification is mandated for margarine, infant formula, cow’s milk, and substitutes, egg products, food for use on a variety of low energy diets, meals replacements, and nutritional supplements. the fourth, source of vitamin d is from supplements and there are mainly two types of supplements of vitamin d. d2 or ergo calciferol and d3 cholecalciferol. vitamin d2 is made from plants and d3 is made from animals. most fortified foods use vitamin d2 because it’s much cheaper than vitamin d3. however, our body uses vitamin d3 better than d2. what are the recommended daily doses of vitamin d supplementation? for children from age 4 to 18 years of age it’s 600 international units per day. for adults between 19 and 50 years of age is 400 to 1000 international units per day. and for people above 50 years of age is between 800 and 2000 international units per day. when the blood levels are above 250 nanomoles per liter this may indicate that the person is taking too many supplements. the maximum daily dose that is safe is 4,000 international units per day. more than this there is the risk of vitamin d toxicity. in acute cases, hypercalcemia occurs which is too much calcium in the blood. and the symptoms include muscle weakness, headaches, anorexia, irritability, nausea, vomiting, and bone pain. but in chronic cases, the symptoms include all of the above plus constipation, abdominal cramps, thirsty, kidney stones, hypertension, and even kidney failure, and cardiac arrhythmias. I’ve seen some research studies where they give a high dose of vitamin d at once. like for example 100,000 in a single dose, in a bolus, and although that sounds like a good idea, it’s funny that the majority of the studies that do this do not show a benefit of vitamin d to improve the immune response, for example, to prevent infections or to reduce cancer. perhaps a bolus of a high dose of vitamin d is enough to help to put calcium in the bones, but if someone wants to have all the benefits of vitamin d including the immune system, regulated mood, strong muscles, and bones, the best method is to take daily supplements. this resembles more what is like to make natural vitamin d from sunlight exposure. please remember that this video is not intended to offer medical advice. if you think you have problems with vitamin d please consult your pharmacist or physician to get a proper diagnosis and treatment plan for you. the intention of this video is only for education. if you like this video don’t forget to like it, subscribe to this channel, and turn on the notifications, so you can be alerted when I post new videos on this channel. 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I’m gonna explain that what exactly the interviewer thinks when he’s asking certain questions. What exact answers he’s looking at and what are the common mistakes that you usually do. The first most common question that is asked by the interviewer is, So tell me something about yourself or he or she might also ask, that run me through your CV? Now here the interviewer is not really interested in your answer. What they are looking at is your confidence, your enthusiasm, and the passion that you answer with. So it’s the best time that you show off your communication skills. Now usually I have observed that many people end up saying, Ahh I love watching movies, I think I love partying. I have so many friends, so I really enjoy partying. No that’s not the right way that you answer this question. What you need to talk about is your education, where you grew up or you can also talk about your past work experience, if you have any, and your personal interests. For example, you can say, Ahh well I grew up in France and I studied accounting. I also worked for an accounting firm for about eight months and I really enjoy numbers, so maybe that’s exactly the reason, I love to solve them. Solving them is so much fun and in my spare time, I really like reading and also go out jogging only if the weather allows me to. So that’s the way you would answer this question. The second most popular question that is asked by an interviewer is, What are your strengths? Now here the interviewer is looking at how positive, you think about yourself. It’s quite a general question, there’s no right or a wrong answer to it, but if you give out one-liners such as, Oh I’m a very friendly person, I love being with people and people love being with me. That just doesn’t sound great for an interview. Isn’t it? So what you can say is, My strongest trait is attention to detail. I totally believe in planning and execution. In fact, even when I was in college, I used to really organize my week and many people, because of my very outgoing nature. Many people have said that I am quite approachable, so I believe these are my strengths. The third most common question that is asked is, So what are your weaknesses? Here for this question, you need not be really negative about yourself. I have heard people saying, well I am a very impatient person or people also say, That I get angry easily. Well, that’s not the right answer. Maybe that is your weakness, but you need not bring it out. The best answer to this, because what the interviewer is looking at is whether you can identify your weakness and how you can cover it up. So one of the examples, that you can use to answer this question is, I think my weakness is that I am way too detail-oriented. I try to accomplish everything and I just want everything to be perfect, but then I realize that I’m losing out on time, so maybe that makes me submit these projects pretty late. So I think that is one of the weaknesses. So here basically, what you are doing is, you are displaying that maybe, you run out of time, but you’re also giving a very positive aspect to it that, you are perfectionists. And that’s exactly what we saw as a strength in the previous question too. So I think this is one of the best ways that you can answer this question. The next common question that is asked is, Where do you see yourself in five years from now or the interviewer might also ask that What are your long term or your short term goals? Now here, I’ve seen people really struggle to answer this question. Well, maybe, because you yourself have no idea, where you would like to be, so usually people end up saying, Oh I would like to be the CEO of this company or I would like to own an airline. That doesn’t sound right, so what a good answer to this question would be because here the interviewer is looking at, how committed you are gonna be to this company? A very clear path with commitment, because you know what’s the attrition rate these days. So he wants to know, how long would you stick to the company? So one of the best answers that you can give would be, Well, five years from now, I think I would like to be in a management position. Till then I would like to gain practical experience and then eventually become a manager. Of course, I would like to share and also learn a lot of new things from my team members. The next most popular question that is asked is, So tell me something about our company or what do you know about our company? Now here the interviewer of course has knowledge about his own company, Right? That he’s working for, but what he is looking at is whether you are serious about this job or not? Whether you have just come for one of those random interviews? So many people are usually let down, because of the lack of research about the company, so what you need to do is research. Go online learn about the positive attributes of the company. Learn about their products, their history and etc. So one of the best ways that you can answer this question is, Oh well your company is very well known for the customer service and you also won an award for the best service provider in the country. And of course, you also have a great clientele, so that’s one of the best ways that you can answer this question. The sixth most common question that is asked is, How well do you handle a change? Well, the philosophy behind this question is to know, would you be able to cope up with a change? Because usually companies definitely come up with different strategies, employees come and go, so would you be able to handle that? People usually end up saying, Oh, of course, I am great at handling a change. Well, trust me the interviewer would not be impressed with this answer. How you can answer this question with an example, would be. Well, of course, I can handle a change, because in my previous company, one of our bosses, one of our immediate bosses had to quit and there was this new boss, who came in and he had completely changed our strategy of a project. So of course, I’m very flexible and hardworking too, so we managed it with our team efforts, and definitely, the results were pretty good. So this is the way that you could answer this question. The next common question that is asked is, How well do you work under pressure? Now the reason behind this question is the employer or the interviewer wants to know that do you get really stressed out? Do you get really panicked under pressure? Because these days companies, of course, expect you to take more and more responsibility and of course a greater workload. So the best way to answer this question is, well definitely working under pressure or without pressure works just the same for me. In fact, in one of the companies that I was working for, there was a project that was given to us, which had to be completed in four days. It usually takes ten days and the whole team is so stressed out, they panicked and just didn’t know what to do, but then I insured that they settled down. We prioritized our work and in fact, in a very organized manner, we completed the project. Of course, we also worked late nights, but that definitely helped to submit our project in four days. So I think working under pressure is not too bad for me. So this is one of the best ways that you can answer this question. The last common question that is asked is, How do you handle important decisions? Now the reason behind this question is usually If someone or the interviewer is hiring the person or hiring you for a management position or for a lead position. He wants to know that someday when you have to handle a very important, very critical decision. How would you do that? So many people end up saying, You know what I really haven’t come across, I really haven’t dealt with such difficult situations. That’s not the right answer you would say, One of the best answers that I can help you with is, You can say, Handling decisions is definitely considered to be a little difficult, but I am sure I can do it, because of my experience. I would rely on my experience, I would also weigh on the pros and cons. Of course, I would also take some advice from my team members and I’m sure that would help me to come to a decision. We will also look at the consequences of the decision. So definitely I can go ahead and make decisions. So that brings me to the end of this lesson. I hope all of these questions and answers are helpful for your interview. And if you are going for an interview. Wish you all the very best. Do well and I will see you soon in the next lesson. Take care. Thank you.